Modern Chemistry Elements and Compounds

Chemistry is the branch of science which deals with the composition of matter and also the Physical and Chemical characteristics associated with the different material objects. A French Chemist Lavoisier is regarded as the father of modern chemistry. (Modern Chemistry Elements and Compounds)

Modern Chemistry Elements and Compounds (Substance and its Nature)

Anything that occupies space and has mass which can be feel by any one or more of our senses is call matter.

Solid State- A solid possesses definite shape and definite volume which means it can not be compressed on applying pressure. Solids are generally hard and rigid. Examples- metals, wood, bricks, copper, etc.
Liquid State- A liquid possesses definite volume but no definite shape. This means the liquid can take up the shape of container in which it is there. Example- water, milk, oil, etc.
Gaseous State- A gas does not have either a definite volume or definite shape. It can be compress to large extent on applying pressure and  takes the shape pf container where it is enclose. Example-Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Ammonia, etc.

What are Pure Substances

A single substance which cannot be separated into other kinds of matter by any physical process is called pure substance. Pure substance are classified as elements and compounds.

What are Elements

The simplest form of a pure substance which can neither be broken into nor built from simpler substances by ordinary, physical and chemical methods is called element.
Elements are further classified into three types-
Metals
Non-Metals
Metalloids

What are Metals

Metals are solid which are normally hard. They have lustre, high mp and bp and also they are good conductor of electricity and heat. The conductivity of metal decreases with increase in temperature due to vibration of positive ions at their lattice points.
Example- Iron, Copper, Silver, Gold, etc.

What are Non-Metals

Non elements are the elements with properties opposite to those of the materials. They are found in all states of matter. They do not possess lustre and and are poor conductors of electricity and they are not malleable and ductile.
Example- Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, etc.

What are Metalloids

Metalloids are the elements which have common properties of both metals and non metals.
Example- Arsenic, Antimony, Etc.

What are Compounds

Compounds are pure substances that are compose of two or more different elements in fixed proportion by mass. The properties of a compound are entirely different from the elements from which it is made.
Example- Water, Sugar, Salt etc.
Compounds are classified into two types-
1. Organic Compounds
2. Inorganic Compounds

What are Organic Compounds

Organic compounds are the compounds which are obtain from living sources. The term organic applies to hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Example- Carbohydrates, Proteins, Oils, Fats, etc.

What are Inorganic Compounds

The compounds which are obtain from non-living sources such as rocks and minerals are define as Inorganic Compounds. Examples- Common Salt, Marble, washing Soda, etc.

What are Mixtures 

Material obtained by mixing two or more substances in any indefinite proportion is define as a mixture. The properties of the components in a mixture remain unchanged. Example- milk,  sea water, petrol, paint, etc.
There are two types of mixture
1. Homogeneous mixture
2. Heterogeneous mixture

1. Homogeneous Mixture

Mixture is said to be Homogeneous if it has a uniform composition throughout and there are no visible boundaries of separation between constituents. Moreover the constituent cant be seen even by a microscope. Example- common salt dissolved in a water, sugar dissolve in water.

2. Heterogeneous Mixture 

A mixture call as  heterogeneous if it does not have a uniform composition throughout and has a visible boundaries of separation between the various constituents. The different constituents of of the heterogeneous mixture can be seen even with naked eye.
Example- a mixture of Sulphur and sand, a mixture of iron fillings and sand.

Modern Chemistry Elements and Compounds

Separation of Mixture

Sublimation

In this process solid substance passes directly into its vapours on application of heat. The vapours when would give back to the original substance. This method can be use for the substances which are sublime in their separation from non sublime materials. examples of iodine ammonium chloride.

Filtration

This is a process for quick and complete removal of suspended solid particles from a liquid by passing the suspension through a filter paper.
Example removal of solid particles from the engine oil in car engine.

Evaporation

If a solution of solid substance in a liquid is heat, the liquid gets converts into its vapour and slowly goes off completely. This process is calls as evaporation. example evaporation of water in summer from ponds.

Crystallization

This method is mostly use for separation and purification of solid substances. In this process the impure solid or mixture heats with suitable solvent to its boiling point and the hot solution is filter. The clear filtrate is cool slowly to room temperature and pure solid crystallizes out which is separate by filtration.

Distillation

It is the process of converting a liquid into its vapour by heating and then condensing the vapour again into the same liquid by cooling. Thus distillation involves vaporization and condensation both. This method is use to separate the liquids which have different boiling points oral liquid from non volatile solid or solids either in solution or suspension.

Fractional distillation

This process is similar to the distillation process except that a fractionating column is use to separate two or more volatile liquid which have different boiling points.

Chromatography

The name chromatography is derive from Latin word Chroma meaning colour. The technique of chromatography is on the difference in the rate at which the components of a mixture are absorb in the suitable absorbent.

Sedimentation and Decantation

This method comes in use when one component is a liquid and other is an insoluble because Insoluble solid is heavier than liquid that is mud and water. If muddy water is allowed to stand undisturbed for sometime in a beaker. The particles of earth settle at the bottom. This process is call as sedimentation the clear liquid at the top can be generally transfer into another beaker this process is call as as decantation.

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